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Contents

Section 1 Sanitary Accommodation

Section 2 Drainage

Section 3 Above Ground Drainage

Section 4 Below Ground Drainage


 

Description:  This unit is designed to enable you to produce and evaluate detailed designs for sanitary accommodation, pipe-work and drainage for complex buildings.

Author:  Gates MacBain Associates


Section 1  Sanitary Accommodation




Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Understand the requirements relating to Sanitary accommodation.


Requirements  

The Building Regulations has specific requirements relating to sanitary accommodation. This relates to size, access and ventilation. The Building Regulations below provides a link to the appropriate Approved Documents.  These set out some of the requirements which must be met in the design of sanitary accommodation.  


Disabled Users 

The requirements with regard to sanitary accommodation for disabled users are set out in the Building Regulations Approved Document M which deals with non-domestic buildings.  This can be viewed by visiting the link below; it provides details of what is required.  You should ensure that you read through this section in order to familiarise yourself with the requirements.  



Websites



Publications

  • Hall, F & Greeno, R, (2009) Building Services Handbook; Oxford: Elsevier 
  • Hall, F, (1997), Building Services & Equipment Volume 1, Harlow: Longman 



Self-Assessment Task

  • State the requirements relating to the provision of sanitary accommodation in public buildings.




Section 2 Drainage
  
The purpose of the drainage system is to remove the foul and surface water from or around a building. 

The removal of waste from a building uses two systems:
  • Above Ground Drainage – deals with the system of pipe-work which carries soil and waste water from the appliances in the building to the below ground drainage and is therefore also known as the soil and waste system.
  • Below Ground Drainage – the pipe-work which carries soil and waste away from the building to a source of treatment or disposal.
You should have worked through the constructionsite unit ‘Services and Health and Safety (Drainage)’ indicated in the Introduction of this unit and should therefore understand the requirements relating to domestic buildings.





Section 3  Above Ground Drainage




Aims and Objectives

 At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Design an above ground system for the removal of soil and waste from the appliances in a five storey block of flats.


 A similar process is used for complex buildings as in domestic buildings but includes additional pipes and measures to prevent the siphonage of water from the seal of traps. As the system will be taking a greater flow larger diameter pipes will also be required. 

The main systems which you should be aware of are: 
  • Single stack system used in simple installations where all appliances connect to a single stack.  Providing the requirements relating to pipe length and size are met there is no need to provide additional ventilation pipes.
  • Modified single stack system – used when appliances are located at a greater distance from the stack than is allowed for a single stack.
  • Fully vented one-pipe system – used when a large number of appliances are used which are dispersed around the building or where a number are grouped together.
  • Two Pipe system – used to avoid the long horizontal pipe runs by having separate vertical stacks for soil and waste appliances.

The detailed requirements relating to soil and waste systems can be found in the Hall books listed below. 

Details of the pipes and fittings that are available can be obtained from manufacturers such as the Marley website indicated below. 



Websites



Publications

  • Hall, F & Greeno, R, (2009) Building Services Handbook; Oxford: Elsevier (Chapter 9)
  • Hall, F, (1997), Building Services & Equipment Volume 1, Harlow: Longman (Chapter 9)



Self-Assessment Task

  • Produce a design and specification for an above ground soil and waste system suitable for a five storey block of flats.





Section 4  Below Ground Drainage




Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Produce a design for the below drainage system for a small housing estate.


There are three types of systems used to remove foul and rain water from a property. 
  • Separate System – uses separate pipes to remove the discharge from appliances and that obtained from rain and surface water. 
  • Combined System – carries water from the appliances and rain and water surfaces in a single pipe.
  • Partially Separate System – although most of the rain and surface water is carried by a separate pipe some can be connected to the foul water drainage.

A detailed review of these systems and the design considerations are looked at in Hall’s books shown below: Though you should also visit the ‘Below Ground Drainage’ in the website box for an overview of the subject.   

Details of the pipes and fittings that are available can be obtained from manufacturers such as the Marley website indicated below. This is an excellent source as it also provides details on the design requirements and how these can be achieved.    



Websites



Publications

  • Hall, F & Greeno, R, (2009) Building Services Handbook; Oxford: Elsevier (Chapter 8)
  • Hall, F, (1997), Building Services & Equipment Volume 1, Harlow: Longman (Chapter 8)



Self-Assessment Task

  • Produce a design and specification for the below drainage system for a small housing estate consisting of 5 dwellings.





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