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Contents

Section 1 Principles of Management

Section 2 Managerial Functions

Section 3 Pioneers of Management

Section 4 Motivational Needs

Section 5 Leadership

Section 6 Team Behaviour
          

 

Description:  This unit introduces the principals and processes of management.

Author:  Gates MacBain Associates


Section 1 Principles of Management




Aims and Objectives


At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Explain the factors relating to the principles of management.


According to the Concise English Dictionary management can be described as:          

'the technique, practice, or science of managing or controlling'

However, its not really quite as simple as that. Management covers a very wide range of activities such as: 
  • General management of the organisation
  • Marketing
  • Finance
  • Production or Service
  • Personnel/Human Resources
  • Others (such as Research & Development)
Regardless of whether the organisation is large or small, managers need to be conscious of its short, medium and long term objectives. The techniques that can be used to identify what is required to be done will be based on the experience of the manager and of those around him/her. A number of simple techniques like SWOT Analysis, (which is a comparison of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats involved of whatever activity is being looked at) can be used. At the other extreme, some very complex computer software is available which looks at business simulation and modelling. Managers should use whatever technique they find most useful; but if at all possible they should avoid 'gut reaction' as this technique is not reliable.   


The Development of Management 

In the early part of the 20th century management theory was still in its infancy.  Among the first theorists was F W Taylor who created the idea of Scientific Management, and Max Weber who introduced an academic approach to managing organisations.  Later, two authors developed and modernised these 'scientific management' themes. Henri Fayol listed 5 specific management operations, and this was added to by L F Urwick; whose list of 7 processes are now among the most commonly accepted basic management principles (You will look at these and other pioneers of management  later in this unit.  In order to manage and control and to be effective managers should take into account the following four factors:   


1.      Responsibility   

This involves managers and supervisors being held accountable for the success or failure of their activities and objectives. There should be a clear definition of responsibilities within the organisation, supplemented where necessary with delegated authority so that subordinates are aware of what they must answer for.  A clear definition of responsibilities allows the people concerned to see where they stand, and enables colleagues and superiors to establish what are and what are not their responsibilities. Responsibility should be absolute at each level, and superiors must be accountable for the actions of their subordinates. Therefore, the responsibilities and limitations of normal decision making for each position should be clearly defined in the employees job description.  


2.      Delegation 

This is the handing over, by a manager, to another person within the organisation a part of his or her task, but without surrendering overall responsibility. It is not simply instructing another person to do a job. Delegation implies that having set an objective the manager allows the other to go ahead (having been given broad terms and guidance), with the minimum of interference. 

At every level, managers should delegate tasks to their subordinates. A managers job, therefore, becomes one of co-ordinating the activities of those who report to them. Efficiency in delegating authority depends on:  
  • Knowing what, and when, to delegate
  • The capabilities of subordinates
  • Access by subordinates to information necessary to make decisions
  • Incentives to subordinates, to decide what is best for the organisation and not just for the individuals or groups.
 
3.      Accountability  

This is the obligation of subordinates to answer to managers for the exercise of authority in line with delegated authority. It is an agreed obligation to produce results in terms of objectives achieved, and it often implies reward for success and some form of censure for failure.  


4.      Authority 

This is the ability or right to require the action of others. There are four basic forms of authority: 
  • Positional  - the status or standing of a person dependent on their office or appointment.
  • Technical  - as above, and dependent on knowledge.
  • Charismatic - as above, and dependent on personality.
  • Seniority  - as above, but depending on age or length of time in the job or organisation.

Some authority is acquired by most managers on their appointment, and are inherently part of the post itself. Most managers acquire authority by virtue of the job they hold. Employees will, therefore, carry out reasonable tasks set by managers, as this is a normal response to traditional working relationships. However, if a task falls outside the normal authority limits, then charismatic authority may become very important. 

Most people are willing to tackle difficult, or even unpleasant, jobs when the manager is recognised and accepted as their leader.  Managers and supervisors should be selected not merely on their seniority or skill, but also on their strength of personality and qualities of leadership. 

Authority by itself does not necessarily bring power. Power is only acquired through gaining the respect of both colleagues and subordinates. Problems of 'internal-politics' will arise if the nominal leader is authorised from above, while the 'real' leader is a different person who is accepted from below.                            

As a simple rule of thumb, nobody should be given authority unless responsible and accountable for the results of their actions.  




Websites



Publications

  • Gatepain, R & Jones, IE, (1996) Management for the Professions, RIA Publishing: Lincoln (Chapter 4 )
  • Cooke, B & Williams, P (2009) Construction planning, programming and control 3rd Edn. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford (Chapter 4)



Self-Assessment Task

  • Describe the four factors that are applicable in order to ensure that a manager is able to control.
  • Discuss the types of authenticity that a manager can have and how they relate to the construction industry.




Section 2 Managerial Functions



Aims and Objectives


At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Explain the relevance of the managerial functions to the construction industry.


Forecasting 

This is the Prediction of the future as it will affect the company or the enterprise. It may be long or short term and depends on the level of management considered.  A Board of Directors may consider types of activities to be undertaken over the next 5-10 years. However, Line Supervisors may consider what tasks are to be done in the next few days. 

The time-scale over which forecasting is developed depends on the type of activity the organisation is involved in, market conditions and the tools available to assist the manager. 

Forecasting can be a very imprecise activity; the greater the length of time it is stretched over the greater the impreciseness. Tools used to assist in forecasting are: Market Research, Operational Research, Industrial Psychology and Computer Simulation. However, these are only tools. It is the managers ability to interpret the information obtained from the use of these tools which is important.  


Planning 

Once the future has been forecast, the desirable has to be achieved and the undesirable avoided. This is the purpose of planning. Planning is the HOW of the future whereas forecasting is the WHAT. Ideas of policy created by the forecast are translated into instructions for action in the plan. 

Planning assumes alternative courses of action are available, and it involves the selection of the best course of action for the conditions which exist. A good plan will lay down broad principles, focus attention on objectives and ensure procedures are constantly adjusted to be consistent with organisational objectives. It must never be rigid, but should incorporate enough flexibility to be amenable to change. 

The process of planning is synonymous with forecasting. An accurate forecast is essential if reliable plans are to be produced. Planning is not just the function carried out by a contractors Planning Department, it covers all aspects of an organisation, and can be long or short term depending on the position of the person carrying it out. 

Planning must take into account feedback data from previous plans, and therefore relies heavily on the Controlling function.   


Organising 

When planning is complete it should be possible to see: 
  • The total job to be done.
  • The total resources available.
Organising is the process by which the total job is broken down into convenient and appropriate work units and an allocation of resources to these tasks is made. It involves the allocation of all resources to the task, not just people. The process of organising comprises of:  
  • Defining and distributing the responsibilities and duties of various personnel in the organisation.
  • Recording types of formal relationships that exist between personnel; the pattern of accountability and paths of communication.
  • The formulation and installation of standard procedures, preferred methods of working and operating instructions.

Motivating 

This is essentially a social process involving the functions of cultivating morale, inspiring loyalty and producing a climate conducive to the fulfilment of the tasks to be undertaken.  

People are an organisation's most important asset. Management must therefore ensure that individuals or groups within the enterprise have the necessary enthusiasm to work and fulfil its plans. Motivators need to be designed to satisfy the needs of the work force and the organisation; either directly or indirectly.   

Needs can be divided into:  
  • Economic  Wages, job-security and job-continuity, pensions, and future prospects.
  • Social  The work environment, relationship with other employees or supervisors, acceptance.
  • Creative  Achievement, job satisfaction.
Motivators can be long or short term, and are dependent on the aspirations of the employee. They may be financial or abstract. They can be positive or negative; since the possibility of high wages or unemployment are equally effective as a motivator.   

Motivation of employees must begin at the top. Employees need confidence in their superiors before they can be inspired by them, they also prefer to be led rather than be driven. (Motivation is discussed in more detail later in this unit).     


Controlling   

The object of control is to check current achievements against predetermined targets, and adjust deployment of resources to attain desired objectives.   

A good control system should establish:    
  • Realistic standards in terms of output, cost and quality.
  • A good system of measuring and checking current performance against plans, goals and objectives.
  • Action to be taken quickly by someone with the necessary authority.

Co-ordinating   

Co-ordinantion is the bringing together of people and the activities they perform, in order to achieve maximum efficiency and harmony. It is an essential product of the organising function and must be achieved throughout the structure of the organisation. Co-ordination is not simply a function that can be imposed from above.   

It is also useful to have facilities for horizontal co-ordination existing within an environment that provides the free exchange of ideas, information and opinion. It is vital that no part of the team or enterprise should work in total isolation.    


Communicating 

Communication is a common factor that links the other processes, allowing them to function effectively. It involves the passing on of plans and instructions from executives to supervisors, the co-ordination of activities, the control of operations by supervisors, and the feedback of results. 

This is a two way process; it should flow up as well as down. Managers, therefore, require the ability to listen as well as speak, and to be able to write effectively. It provides a medium for the circulation of knowledge, ideas, decisions and reactions, and should ideally permit the free expression of suggestions at all levels of the enterprise. 

Communication must be concise, unambiguous and clearly understood. This is looked at in greater detail in a specific module. 




Websites



Publications

  • Gatepain, R & Jones, IE, (1996) Management for the Professions, RIA Publishing: Lincoln (Chapter 3)
  • Cooke, B & Williams, P (2009) Construction planning, programming and control 3rd Edn. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford (Chapter 4)



Self-Assessment Task

  • Produce an outline explanation of how the management functions relate to the construction industry.





Section 3 Pioneers of Management

A number of people are accepted as being the pioneers of management as it was their theories that have changed the way that we look upon and conduct the process of management. Using the resources listed carry out the piece of research specified below.


research_project


Research Project


By visiting the Pioneers websites below, produce a list of five of those who you consider have had a significant influence on the development of management and summarise the contribution that they made.





Websites




Self-Assessment Task

  • Discuss the theories of the five pioneers you selected and their relevance in today’s business organisation.





Section 4 Motivational Needs




Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Explain the main theories relating to motivation and relate them to the work situation.

 
 
In the next sections we will look at Motivation and Leadership and certainly these two things go hand in hand as it is the job of the leader to motivate and, if you have poor leadership you will have poor motivation.  Before we look at these areas in detail play the Motivation and Leadership presentation at the end of this section; this will give you an overview of the subject and the relationship between these and how teamwork and morale relate. 

Having watched the presentation you will understand that a 'motive' is an internal force pushing a person towards a desired goal, or a fear making them retreat from an undesired goal. Motives are therefore, drives, needs or wants, and can be divided into two groups: 

1.    Physiological: e.g. food, drink, sleep, shelter, warmth etc.
2.    Psychological: e.g. friendship, approval, self-esteem etc. 

Human beings put their needs in a system of priority rankings whereby physiological needs come first. After these are satisfied the order of priority will depend on the individual and his/her circumstances.  When trying to motivate people it is important to know the type of person s/he is, and what are their wants and needs.The main factors which affect a person’s motivation are:
  • Personality - aspirations, expectations, ambition and aptitude.
  • Economic and Social Status - a blue collar worker may be more interested in job security and earning more than a white collar worker who may be interested in status.
  • Age and Family Circumstances - a person with a young family will possibly be more interested in overtime to pay for the upkeep of their children, than someone who is older, with grown up children.
  • Group Goals - these can determine the attitude of its members, as people want to be accepted by the group.
There are a number of Motivation Theories these include:  


Incentive Theory 

An incentive is an objective goal which has been set up in order to tap motivation, this is usually financial as it tends to get people to work harder. They are commonly used in manufacturing and the construction industry though it is important that they comply to the following:
  • Operatives should know what they have to do for how much, and this should be related to output.
  • Output and quality should be attainable by the average employee.
  • Payment should be as soon as the job is finished.
  • Once targets are set they should not be made more difficult.
  • No restriction should be placed on the level of earnings.
Incentive schemes are used to increase productivity, efficiency and earning opportunities. They encourage good labour relations and encourage workers to remain with the company.   


Intrinsic Theory 

People tend to adjust their behaviour to fit in with others around them, their expectations, roles, responsibilities and the organisation's demands.  The situation (workplace, home etc) is an important determinant of motivational behaviour. This is further reinforced by Torrington and Hall who state that:           

"... individuals are increasingly motivated by a need to fulfil their potential and continue their self-development. Factors intrinsic to the content of the job, such as experiencing a sense of achievement, recognition and responsibility at work, are those that motivate employees".  

Motivation theory suggests that individual behaviour at work will be linked to satisfying these needs. Therefore, if a job is designed in a way that meets these needs, then the worker will perform well as s/he will be satisfying both personal and organisational requirements. Modern job design schemes invariably recognise these precepts, but it is sometimes difficult to put them into action. According to most authors of management and personnel publications modern/current theories of motivation appear to be confined to: 
  • Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
  • Alderfer's need hierarchy.
  • Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation.
  • Perception theories.        

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 

Maslow stated that man has five basic needs arranged in a hierarchy of priorities like a pyramid. At the bottom are physiological needs i.e. hunger, thirst, warmth, shelter etc. Once these are satisfied a person moves up to the next priority which are safety needs i.e. security and protection. When secure and protected s/he will look for love and affection. The next step is esteem needs of self respect, confidence, adequacy and achievement; and finally self-fulfilment by creativity or power.         

1.     Physiological - hunger, thirst, sex etc.        
2.     Safety - protection from danger, threat, deprivation.        
3.     Social - belonging, association, acceptance, giving and receiving friendship and love.        
4.     Esteem - self-confidence, independence, status, recognition, appreciation, respect.         
5.     Self-actualization - realizing ones potential and continued self-development.   

In this model human motives are seen as a pyramid of ascending needs and goals. At the bottom are the most basic needs, as progress is made towards the top, the needs and the goals become more complex. Maslows pyramid is shown below.               


 
            Maslow's Pyramid     


What distinguishes the different levels of Maslow's hierarchy is 'prepotence': the relative strength of the different needs. In this view, the stronger needs are lower on the hierarchy. The general rule is that once the lower needs are satisfied, the higher ones can be sought. However, not all people follow the pyramid; some will miss out levels while others reverse levels in order of importance.   

Modern psychologists, particularly in the USA, believe that Maslow's pyramid of motivation is a general, and somewhat idealistic scheme. While thirst is certainly more basic than self-actualization, employees often satisfy many different needs at one time. The hierarchy does not really work for the higher end. Many writers now consider that esteem, knowledge etc are more equivalent to one another than Maslow presumed. Also, the importance of the different levels may vary between individuals.     

Alderfer's Need Hierarchy   

Alderfer produced a theory between 1969-72 that incorporates three levels of need; Existence (material and physiological desires e.g. salary), Relatedness (social contact or friendship e.g. supervision) and Growth (using skills and abilities and developing potential e.g. interesting job). This is commonly given the acronym ERG.   

Unlike Maslow, Alderfer places less emphasis on the hierarchical organisation of component factors. This is a rational theory which infers that work has to provide for all three of these ideas, but the Growth aspect is the most important. If employees do not enjoy their work they will not like doing it, and this must, by inference, lead to a lowering of productivity and job satisfaction. Whilst this theory is considered to be current, very little appears to have been published on its applicability to the workplace.     

Mcgregor   

A great deal of work was carried out by Douglas McGregor in the 1950s conceptualizing assumptions about human nature.   McGregor labelled people as either Theory X types or Theory Y.  
  • Theory X. These according to McGregor are innately lazy, irresponsible, self-centred. They dislike work and are indifferent to the needs of the organisation. Because of these traits they need to be threatened, coerced and controlled and in fact prefer to be directed and controlled. Their main concern is security and they will avoid responsibility.
  • Theory Y people are the opposite. They have a high capacity for developing an interest in work and will commit themselves to organisational objectives. They will work with a minimum of supervision and external controls. 
In dealing with Theory X types it would be expected that an autocratic managerial style would be more effective. Whilst Theory Y types would be more receptive to the type of motivators advocated by Maslow and Herzberg such as job satisfaction and non monetary rewards.  McGregor basis his theory on the average person, certainly a number of people will fall within his model, however,  not all things, let alone persons, can fit neatly into the boxes that McGregor has produced.       


Satisfaction Theory   

Herzberg's two-factor Theory of Motivation   

Herzburg suggested there are two distinct categories of factors related to people's attitudes to work, these are classified as:        


1. Hygiene Factors 

These are not motivators, and they will not get people to work harder, though if these factors are not satisfactory employees will become Dissatisfied and this will result in reduced output or high labour turnover.  Such factors are:  
  • Money.
  • Working Conditions.
  • Company policies and administration.
  • Status and Security.
  • Supervision.
  • Social relationships at work.

2.  Motivating Factors 

These have a positive and long lasting effect and can be attributed to job satisfaction. Such factors are:  
  • Self satisfaction.
  • Achievement.
  • Recognition of achievement.
  • Challenging work.
  • Responsibility.
  Herzburg suggested enriching the job which could be done by removing controls, increasing accountability and authority for the employee to plan his/her job. Give him/her new and more difficult tasks, keep him/her well informed, and allow him/her to develop his/her own capabilities.   

A major criticism of Herzberg's theory is that the results he obtained were 'artificial' and reflected an inherent weakness involved in data collection. People will naturally disassociate themselves from unfavourable events, and ascribe causes to external factors, but they will always recognise their own importance in successful outcomes.                

Perception Theories   

This considers the influence of perception on workers.   

What has to be recognized here is that effort and performance are not always directly related. Many people will have been driving a vehicle for many years, yet they cannot expect to have the same skill level as Damian Hill in a high speed motor race. However, many people can attain a basic level of competence in many tasks, providing they put in the time and effort. Belief in one's ability to reach certain performance targets is a vital component for achievement.   

McKenna considers in some depth the relationship between performance and rewards and breaks them into two parts: intrinsic (challenge, achievement, success) and extrinsic (pay, promotion, fringe benefits etc). He believes that the level of satisfaction depends on how near the rewards are to what the employee perceives as equitable for the services rendered. The ideas being put forward here suggest that not only should jobs be designed or redesigned (job enrichment) so that they are challenging, with variety and autonomy, but that monetary rewards should be provided and equated with 'perceived equitable rewards'. Therefore, there should be a match between the employees traits and abilities and the requirements for the job.   

The value of the goals will also affect behaviour (and motivation). For example, whilst employees may value promotion as a goal, they quite often (wrongly) believe that however hard they work it will not be recognised in terms of advancement. Therefore, they will be less motivated to put in any extra effort as it would be 'a waste of time'.




Websites


Publications


  • Gatepain, R & Jones, IE, (1996) Management for the Professions, RIA Publishing: Lincoln (Chapter 7)




Self-Assessment Task

  • Explain the principle behind Maslow’s Hierachy of needs.
  • MacGregor had two groups of people; explain what these are and state the relevance to you as a manager and how understanding this will influence the way you manage these people.



Section 5  Leadership




Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • List the qualities that the leader of a team should possess.
  • Explain the tasks that the leader of a group is responsible for and must perform in order to ensure the completion of a task.


We have seen how leadership affects the morale and motivation of a group and we will look at what leadership is and the qualities and tasks that relate to a leader. The leaders’ managerial behaviour can be classified by two approaches as either Scientific or Humanistic.  


Leaders Managerial Behaviour 

Leaders fall into one of two categories: 

1)  Scientific. This is concerned with production.  Here the desire is to get the task completed as efficiently as possible. Goals are defined and problems outlined, suggestions and ideas are then offered as a course of action, these are then evaluated and progress checked. 

2)  Humanistic.  This is concerned with people.  Socially orientated managers strive to create a harmonious climate within the group. They encourage group members, show regard for the feelings and welfare of the group, attempt to reconcile discord, reduce tension, ensure group members contribute to decisions and attempts to improve group efficiency by collaboration.  

Leaders may also be classed as being one of the following types: 

1)  Autocratic.  Here the leader determines all group policies without consultation.  

2)  Laissez faire. This allows complete freedom within the group as the leader does not direct effort. This produces low productivity and inferior quality.  

3)  Democratic. The leader encourages and assists group members in making decisions. Productivity is high and considerable originality is shown by the group while hostility is negligible. The group also works on its own initiative.  

Also to be considered are the four styles of leadership as distinguished by Rensis Likert. These are: 

1)  The Exploitive  Authoritative system.  Decisions imposed on subordinates. Motivation is characterised by threats.  

2)  The Benevolent   Authoritative system.  Leadership by condescending master - servant relationship. Motivation is mainly by rewards.  

3)  The Consultative system.  Leadership by superiors having substantial but not complete trust in subordinates. Motivation is by rewards and some involvement.  

4)  The  Participative  group system.  Leadership by superiors having complete confidence in subordinates. Motivation is by economic rewards based on joint goals. All personnel feel responsibility for achieving organisational goals.   


Effectiveness of the Leader 

  • This must consider the following: ·     
  • The Styles of Leadership and their advantages/disadvantages·     
  • The Role of the Leader – Interpersonal, Informational, Decisional·     
  • Considerations of leadership 
    • Qualities – needed by a leader
    • Situation – how leadership will depend on the situation
    • Function – what tasks the leader must carry out·     
  • Handling People – how to motivate and get the best from people·     
  • Communication – ensuring that an efficient system of communication is used ·     
  • Problem solving – how to assess and find solutions to problems·     
  • Decision making – the techniques used to aid decision making 




Websites



Publications

  • Cooke, B & Williams, P (2009) Construction planning, programming and control 3rd Edn. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford (Chapter 4)




Self-Assessment Task

  • Explain the difference between the Scientific and Humanistic type of leadership.
  • Explain the styles of leadership and the advantages and disadvantages of each.




Section 6  Team Behaviour




Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Explain the life cycle of a team/group
  • Suggest when and why teams/groups are formed
  • Define the responsibilities of the leader


The Workings of a Group 

People tend to work better in a team, both from the sociological  and from the efficiency point of view, for we are, after all, increasing the abilities, brain power and experience which is available. 

Teams need to be able to:         

1. Co-operate        
2. Co-ordinate        
3. Communicate 

They also need tolerance, dedication and diplomacy.   

It is important that any group establishes working relationships with other individuals, groups and the organisation of which it is part. 

A group should: 
  • Communicate
  • Be able to make decisions
  • Be cohesive
  • Have good morale 
  • Have a good atmosphere
  • Have acceptable standards
  • Have acceptable procedures
Within a group there is both a formal and informal structure. The formal structure is that which is recognised by all outside the group and represents the division of labour amongst the group members, ie. rank, appointment. The informal structure determines how individuals exert their influence on the groups activities according to their prestige, power or persuasiveness.   

The effective and efficient working together of all concerned in a venture maximises the chances of success. Working in groups also benefits the less able as they will have the benefit of the other members contribution who are more knowledgeable and skilled. 

Teambuilding also involves allowing the members time to build informal relations, consequently if a group plays together, it stays together. Time to socialise is therefore important in building a team spirit and the popularity of teambuilding exercises and tasks. 

The members of the group can make three types of contribution:                

1.     Correct suggestions        
2.     Correct criticism        
3.     Trigger suggestions 

It is not the group that creates the ideas, this is done by the individuals within the group, either by their selves or with the stimulation of another member. The group then, if it accepts the idea, builds and develops it. 

The most important thing is information, this can be broken down into:
  • the task itself and information which will enable the group to find a solution to the problem or determine how the task is to be carried out, and
  • the parameters, this includes the time factors and resources which are involved and the priority of activities.
   The history of the group in terms of its past successes and failures has an important bearing on the morale of the group. The sense of sharing also has the effect of binding people together, as does the amount of time that the group spends together, something which is crucial in its formation as it takes time to get to know others and build a relationship. It also takes time for the group personality to take shape. The more that a person participates in the group activity the more they will become involved in the group.       


Leaders Role   

We have looked at leadership in the previous section and for a team or group to be effective it must have strong leadership, the leader should be seen as a loyal member of the group who is fair and respected. He should set a good example and carry out the policies of the company. It is also the leaders task to convey the feelings of the group to the company, the leader should therefore, subconsciously, take on the group personality, sharing their values, goals and motives.   

The leader should be capable of defining and abiding by company policies and procedures and set a good example for others to follow.   

To maintain an effective group the leader must reduce tension and resolve differences. He must also maintain cohesion within the group, and inspire its members. He should also make each member of the team feel important and give praise were it is due.   

Bad leadership leads to a lack of direction, dedication and assertiveness. This can produce indecision and failure to reach objectives. The role of the leader is to help the group achieve its objective or task, maintain its unity and ensure that each individual contributes to the group.   

The ability to inspire others is a general characteristic of a good leader. This is especially important if the group is working in difficult, dangerous or adverse circumstances.  

A crucial role of the leader is to ensure that all members of the team are effectively carrying out their role. So in order for the team to achieve its’ objectives the leader is responsible for the following functions:     
  • Initiating - Getting the task moving and keeping it moving.
  • Regulating - Influencing the direction and speed of the groups work.
  • Informing - Ensuring the group has information and opinions.
  • Supporting - Ensuring that the emotional climate is right for the group which will hold them together and encourage contributions.
  • Evaluating - Helping the group to evaluate its decisions, objectives and procedures.

Responsibilities of the Leader   

The leader should be involved with the selection of team members; certainly the leader has the following responsibilities:  
  • Selection, if not responsible he should be involved in it and should have the right of veto.
  • Ensuring a high standard of discipline.
  • Controls the use of resources.
  • Allocates responsibilities and tasks.
  • Directs the formation of team strategy and plans.
  • Is responsible for the coordination of the teams work with other groups.
  • Encourages and inspires the team.
 
 Having obtained a general understanding of the subject you should now look at some of the theories behind team working and a group dynamics.  These can be seen by visiting the websites indicated. 


powerpoint


PowerPoint Presentations





Websites



Self-Assessment Task


  • State the advantages of using a team over a single person in order to plan a project.
  • Explain why it is important to have strong and efficient leadership for a team.
  • Explain Bruce Truckman’s team development model.





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