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Contents

Section 1 Design of Utility Systems

Section 2 Water Supply

Section 3 Electricity

Section 4 Gas                                    


 

Description:  The purpose of this unit is to provide an understanding of the principles of basic designs for the main utilities in commercial and industrial buildings.

Author:  Gates MacBain Associates


Section 1  Design of Utility Systems




Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • State the factors which must be considered prior to the design of buildings utility systems.


The purpose of the utility provision within a building is to provide these utilities at the point of use.  It must therefore deliver the required service at the required point in order to provide sufficient capacity for the requirements of users.  These must be delivered in a safe and convenient manner taking into account the likely requirements of other users of the building in order to ensure that sufficient is always available. The design of any system must therefore consider:  
  • The utilities that are required or might be required
  • Size of the building
  • Use of the building and the activities which are to be undertaken requiring utilities
  • Loading Requirements what is it needed for and for what time duration, are the requirements spaced evenly over the day or do they come at specific periods.
In determining the requirements the designer should also be aware of the costs of the utilities in order to appraise the factors in deciding which utilities will be used ie should heating be provided by gas, electricity or oil. 

Prior to the design it will be necessary to understand the basic needs for the comfort of the building users and the measures which will provide those needs. If you are unclear on this you can visit the constructionsite unit Thermal Comfort and the Transfer of Heat. You should look at the Chadderton book shown below.    



Publications

  • Chadderton, D (2009) Building Services Engineering (5th Edition) Spon: Abingdon (Chapter 1 & 2)



Constructionsite Units

  • Thermal Comfort and the Transfer of Heat



Self-Assessment Task

  • Discuss the considerations relating to the design of the utility systems for commercial and industrial buildings.




Section 2  Water Supply




Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Suggest the design for water systems in commercial and industrial building.


You should be familiar with the basic design of water supply in a building, this is dealt with in the constructionsite units listed below and should be referred to in order to ensure that you have an understanding of the basic principles.  Once you have that you will need to look at how the systems differ for multi-storey or industrial buildings. Guidance on this can be obtained from the resources listed below.  


Legionnaires Disease 

An important consideration in the design of any system is the requirement to reduce the risk of the Legionella bacteria being a risk to the health of the users of the building: Although this will also be affected by the maintenance of the system.  

Legionella bacteria can be found in rivers and lakes, though the bacteria is usually only present in the low numbers due to the temperature of the water being too cold for the bacteria to grow and spread. 

In an artificial water system, given the right circumstances, they can quickly grow and reproduce, leading to a wide spread contamination of the water system to the detriment of the building users. 

The two things the bacteria require to grow and reproduce are: 
  • a water temperature of between 20-45C (68-113F), and
  • impurities in the water that the bacteria can use for food, such as rust, sludge, algae, and limescale.
Any water system can be vulnerable to legionella infection include:
  • baths and showers,
  • fountains,
  • sprinkler systems,
  • whirlpool baths,
  • spas, and
  • humidifiers that were being used in food display cabinets.
Though those most vulnerable are: 
  • hot and cold water systems for large buildings, such as hotels and hospitals,
  • air conditioning systems that use water for cooling purposes,
  • cooling towers.
The Health & Safety Executive (HSE) provide guidance on Legionnaires' disease on their website listed below. 



Websites



Publications

  • Hall, F (1997) Building Services & Equipment (3rd  Edition) Longman: Harlow (Chapter 1)
  • Hall, F, & Greeno, R (2009) Building Services Handbook (5th Edition) Elsevier; Oxford (Chapter 2)



Constructionsite Units



Self-Assessment Task

  • Using a drawing, produce a design suitable for a 20 storey commercial building.





Section 3  Electricity




Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Explain the design of the electricity provision applicable to industrial or commercial buildings.


An introduction to electricity is provided in the constructionsite unit Services and Health and Safety, which you should ensure you are familiar with. You are advised therefore to visit this unit by clicking on the link below. You should also look at the unit on Utility Industries in relation to Electricity as this will give you a grounding in the production and supply of electricity to the building. You can then move on to look at how electricity is dealt with in the building itself and the systems used to deliver it around the building according to the needs of the occupants or functions carried out in the building. 

A general overview can be obtained from the publications listed which will ensure you understand the factors relating to electricity in commercial and industrial buildings. To provide detailed guidance you should familiarise yourself with the CIBSE Guide Electricity in Buildings which can be accessed by clicking on the web link below.  



Websites



Publications

  • Hall, F (1997) Building Services & Equipment (2nd Edition) Longman: Harlow (Chapter 3)
  • Chadderton, D (2009) Building Services Engineering (5th Edition) Spon: Abingdon (Chapter 13)
  • Hall, F, & Greeno, R (2009) Building Services Handbook (5th Edition) Elsevier; Oxford (Chapter 11)



Constructionsite Units



Self-Assessment Task

  • Discus the considerations applicable to the provision of electricity for an industrial unit on an industrial estate.




Section 4  Gas



Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Suggest design layout for systems for the conveyance of gas around a building.


Before you look at the requirements for gas in multi-storey buildings you should ensure that you have an understanding of how gas is supplied to a building and the basics in which is conveyed around a building.  This is provided in the constructionsite units and the publications listed below and you should look through these in order to ensure that you understand the basic principles.  You should also be aware of the Regulations that apply to Gas, something which is provided by the HSE website below.   



Websites



Publications

  • Hall, F (1997) Building Services & Equipment (2nd Edition) Longman: Harlow (Chapter 6)
  • Chadderton, D (2009) Building Services Engineering (5th Edition) Spon: Abingdon (Chapter 12)
  • Hall, F, & Greeno, R (2009) Building Services Handbook (5th Edition) Elsevier; Oxford (Chapter 10)



Constructionsite Units

  • Services (Gas)
  • Utility Industries (Natural Gas)



Self-Assessment Task

  • Produce a layout showing the design for the provision of gas in a commercial building.







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