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Section 1. The Training Cycle     
Section 2. Learning Outcomes

Section 3. Assessment Process

Section 4. Evaluation


Description:  The purpose of this unit is to enable you to review the learning outcomes as a result of work based learning opportunities and describe the knowledge, understanding and skills required to achieve them. Evaluate the benefits of the training and development undertaken.

Author:  Gates MacBain Associates

Section 1 The Training Cycle

Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
Identify the procedure involved with the production of a training course.

In order for any training courses to be produced it is normal to follow a set procedure to ensure that the training meets the requirements that it sets out to achieve.  All training must have a purpose and it is the aim of the training cycle to ensure that the training fulfills that purpose and ensures that it achieves what it sets out to achieve. 

The development of the requirement of a learning course is obtained by working through the training cycle as this assesses the knowledge, understanding and skills required to achieve them, this involves:

  • Identifying training needs – this involve the identification of a need and who needs the training for what purpose.
  • Setting training objectives – will determine what needs to be achieved by the completion of the training and what the successful completion of the course will enable the trainee to do.
  • Selecting methods of validation and evaluation – Looks at how confirmation will be obtained that the training will meet the learning requirements.
  • Designing the training course - This stage covers planning, design and development of the training content. 
  • Running the training course - This stage of the training cycle ensures that the delivery of the training is effective and provides opportunities for the learners to learn.  This will involve choosing the most appropriate format for meeting training needs, and taking advantage of different training methods.
  • Carrying out validation and evaluation – This deals with the collection, analysis and presentation of information to establish the improvement in performance that results from this and ensuring that it met the learning objectives. 
The Training Cycle link below shows the stages involved in the development of a training course.


Self-Assessment Task

  • Discuss the procedure which needs to be gone through in the production of a training course.

Section 2 Learning Outcomes

Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Explain the requirements relating to the learning outcomes for a training programme.

The learning outcome of any training is what the person who completes the training should be able to know or do.

The learning outcomes may be considered from the individual and organizational viewpoint. The individual’s learning outcomes are based upon the aspirations of the individual and what they perceive would be gained from the learning experience.  Organizations may require certain education and training to be completed in order that the individual may be considered competent to complete the tasks of the company.

It is important to study the information available, qualification aim content and anticipated outcome before engaging upon a course of study or competence based qualification. With regard to work based learning all training should have a specific purpose before a person is required to carry it out.

Individuals commence qualifications for a variety of reasons and it is important not to merely follow that which others have achieved but more to determine a structured plan over a period of years prior to commencement, to visualize the potential ultimate goal even if this is not ultimately achieved.  Some qualifications may be required merely to enter construction sites (eg CSCS Card), as discussed in the constructionsite unit Personal Development. 

Candidates /Learners require a structured motivated approach to the qualification aim and must be prepared to expend the required time and effort in gaining the award, they will also require support from those around them; in particular the employer. 

The concept of learning outcomes in educational parlance for all types of learning opportunities may appear to the uninitiated complex.   It is important therefore, to discuss the education and training opportunities with the provider before the experience commences.

From a practical aspect the award of an academic or competence based qualification aim should result in benefits to the employer and employee. They should provide:
  • Improvement in Employee performance
  • Increased knowledge understanding and skill
  • Improved quality assurance and service to clients
  • Improved knowledge and evaluation of the training process
  • Clearer understanding of individual responsibilities and company processes.
  • Career and qualification progression opportunities awareness.
The work carried out by Kirkpatrick has become a widely used model for the Evaluation of Training and Learning, which can be found at the website below.


Constructionsite Units

Self-Assessment Task

  • Discuss the importance of learning outcomes for a training programme.

Section 3 Assessment Process

Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Discuss the reasons for and the ways which can be adopted for the assessment of a training programme.

Training is only effective if on completion of the training process individuals are competent to complete safely and effectively the specified objectives of the training process. In order to ensure that learners fulfil these objectives some form of structured assessment must be used.

In order to be awarded qualifications the learner needs to demonstrate that they have reached the required standard for that qualification.  This means that their work needs to be assessed by the organisation providing the training and confirmed by the organisation awarding the qualification. In the college situation the student will submit assignments, undertake testing and examinations and similar exercises, which must meet the specified criteria. This entails the work being assessed by the Tutor which is then internally assessed by a suitably qualified Internal Verifier in the college to ensure that the quality standards are maintained.  The assignment will then be inspected by an External Verifier from the institution awarding the qualification.  All of these processes being designed to ensure that the students work meets the nationally agreed standards, whether these are based upon knowledge, understanding or competence to perform. 

Assessment and verification of assessment decisions requires experienced and qualified Assessors, Internal Verifiers and External Verifiers who have a thorough knowledge and understanding of the standards required by the examining body.

The assessment process is looked at in A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing, which is referred to below. Chapters 5 and 14 are of particular interest, but the concept of assessment is considered throughout the publication.

The Training and Development Agency website below provides a description of the roles of the personnel involved in the assessment of National Vocational Qualifications and by clicking on the various topic areas listed knowledge and understanding of the personnel and support available to learners can be obtained.

Other assessment related matters such as cost benefits etc are on this Fastrack Consulting website which can be accessed by clicking onto the link below.



  • Bloom (2001) A Taxonomy of Learning, Teaching and Assessment, Longman

Self-Assessment Task

  • Discuss the options which can be used to assess the success of a trainee in achieving the learning outcomes of a training course.

Section 4 Evaluation

Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Discuss the factors to be considered in the evaluation the success of a training programme in achieving the learning outcomes of a course.

Evaluation is any activity that is carried out during the planning, delivery and post delivery of training programmes which enables those involved to learn and make judgements about the assumptions, implementation processes and outcomes of the training concerned.  

Whilst the evaluation of a qualification aim by the candidate is usually at the end of the course of study, in many ways this is flawed.  Evaluation by whatever mean should be considered a process which operated as a continuum at all stages prior to during and following qualification aim delivery. It should have the objective of improving the qualification aim whilst maintaining the quality of the programme. 

Many of the Professional Institutes and Institutions have their own survey questionnaires to gain feedback from those undertaking qualification aims and most educational establishments will have a form of paper or on line survey.  

The process of relating to training programme evaluation can be found at the website below. Kirkpatrick (See link below) considers the function of training and evaluation and his work has become a widely used model for the evaluation of training and learning. 

Further information relating can be found at the Evaluation link below. 

Blooms Taxonomy of Learning, Chapters 5 deals with Evaluation, but it is also considered throughout the publication.



  • Bloom (2001) A Taxonomy of Learning, Teaching and Assessment, Longman

Self-Assessment Task

  • Explain the ways in which the suitability of a training programme is confirmed.

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